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IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSRJEEE) ISSN: 2278-1676 Volume 2, Issue 1 (July-Aug. 2012), PP 41-45

Distributed Generation: Technologies and Power Quality Issues

1S. S. Dhamse, 2Dr. W. Z. Gandhare

1Research Scholar, Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad (India). 2Principal, Government College of Engineering, Amravati (India).

Abstract: With the energy problems increasing seriousness, distributed generation is growing day by day. The distributed generation has wide range of applications for the merits of small investment, reliable and clean power supply, flexible generation manner, environment protection etc. DG can be used in an isolated way, supplying the consumer’s local demand, or integrated into the grid supplying energy to the electrical power system. Distributed generation can run on renewable energy resources, fossil fuels or waste heat. DG can meet all or part of consumer’s meet power needs. If connected to a distribution or transmission system, power can be sold to the utility. In this paper, an attempt is made to discuss different types of distribution generation and sources of distributed generation such as fuel cell, solar energy, wind energy, micro turbine. In this paper, different issues of power quality are also discussed.

Key words: Distributed Generation, Micro turbines, Photovoltaic, Power Quality, Reciprocating Diesel Engines

I. Introduction

Distributed Generation generally refers to small-scale electric power generators that produce electricity at a site close to customers or that are tied to an electric distribution system [1].

IEEE defines Distribution Generations as the generation of electricity by facilities sufficiently smaller than central plants, usually 10 MW or less, so as to allow interconnection at nearly any point in the power system. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) defines Distributed Generation as generation from a few kilowatts up to 50 MW.

International Energy Agency (IEA) defines Distributed Generation as power generation equipment and system used generally at distribution levels and where the power is mainly used locally on site.

The International Council on Large Electricity Systems defines Distributed Generation as generation that is not centrally planned, centrally dispatched at present, usually connected to the distribution network, and smaller than 50-100 MW.

Distribution generators includes, but are not limited to synchronous generators, reciprocating engines, micro turbines, combustion gas turbines, fuel cells, solar photovoltaic and wind turbines. These generators are distributed throughout the power system closer to the loads. The DG penetration in the grid poses new challenges and problems to the network operators as these can have a significant impact on the system and equipment operations in terms of steady state operation, dynamic operation, reliability, power quality, stability and safety for both customers and electricity suppliers.

II. Types Of Dg

Generally, classification of DG is based on three aspects:

1. According to the type of technology, DG can be divided into wind power, solar photovoltaic, small

hydropower, fuel cells, micro turbines etc.

2. Based on the use of primary energy, DG can be divided into renewable energy and non-renewable energy.

3. In accordance with the interface to power system, DG can be divided into associated (electromechanical)

and through the inverted connected system [3].

III. Dg Technologies [2][3] 3.1 Reciprocating Diesel or Natural Gas Engines

Reciprocating engines, developed more than 100 years ago, were the first among DG technologies. Both Otto (spark ignition) and Diesel cycle (compression ignition) engines have gained widespread acceptance in almost every sector of the economy. They are used on many scales, with applications ranging from fractional horsepower units that power small tools to enormous 60 MW base load electric power plants. Smaller engines are primarily designed for transportation and can usually be converted to power generation with little modification. Larger engines are most frequently designed for power generation, mechanical drive, or marine propulsion.

Reciprocating engines can be fueled by diesel or natural gas, with varying emission outputs. Almost all engines used for power generation are four-stroke and operate in four cycles (intake, compression, combustion, 41 | Page

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