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Publication Title | Dynamic Modeling and Control of Microturbine DG System for Autonomous Operation

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Dynamic Modeling and Control of Microturbine DG System for Autonomous Operation

Mahmoud S. Kandil

Magdi M. El-Saadawi Ahmed E. Hassan Khaled M. Abo-Al-Ez

Mansoura University Department of Electrical Engineering P.O. Box 35516, Mansoura, Egypt

m.kandeel@mans.edu.eg, m_saadawi@mans.edu.eg, ahassan@mans.edu.eg, ezzkhalid@mans.edu.eg

Abstract - Decentralized Generation (DG) is expected to play a vital role in the future of electric power system. The power electronics interfaced microturbine generation systems are currently attracting lot of attention to meet different needs both at end consumers and the distribution utility levels. Dynamic modelling of the microturbine is a challenging process because manufacturers do not readily provide model data, if any exist at all. In this paper a proposed microturbine DG dynamic model is developed in Matlab-Simulink and implemented using a test system built with SimpowerSystem block set. The proposed model is interfaced with the electrical system using a simplified Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) model. This model supports power system applications as long as harmonics are not the main concern. For many techno-economical reasons, the amount of DG systems is expected to increase rapidly, especially for rural electrification. Therefore, this paper investigates the autonomous operation of microturbine DG system with a Voltage- frequency (V-f) control strategy. Test and validation results of the proposed dynamic simulation model and the proposed inverter controller are presented. Analysis of results shows that the proposed microturbine DG model has the advantage of generalized structure so that it can be used for performance testing of different microturbine commercial types, and it could be used for simulation and study of different DG applications by establishing proper interfacing and controllers.

Index Terms - Decentralized Generation (DG), Microturbine Model, Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) Model, PID speed Controller, V-f control.

I. INTRODUCTION

Decentralized Generation (DG) systems are small generating plants serving a customer on-site or providing support to a distribution network [1]. Microturbines are offering one of the best distributed power production options. Because of their small size, relatively low capital costs, expected low operations and maintenance costs, and automatic electronic control, microturbines are expected to capture a significant share of the DG market. In addition, microturbines offer an efficient and clean solution [2, 3]. In the last decade, most of the research efforts were focused on the modeling of steady state characteristics of DG units [4]. This means that they are not realistic models, because they do not capture the dynamic nature of the real power system. More accurate and realistic dynamic models could help in solving real power grid problems.

For many technical and economical purposes, the amount of DG systems is expected to increase rapidly, especially for

electrification of remote communities. More accurate models of DGs will help in reducing the cost of studies of integrating DGs in Egyptian distribution network.

Dynamic Modeling of DGs is a challenging process because the manufacturers do not readily provide model data, if any exist at all [5]. The literature on the microturbine as a DG unit is scarce [6]. A short review of most of the literature is presented here. A dynamic model for combustion gas turbine has been discussed in [7-10]. In 1983, a mathematical combustion gas turbine model was developed by Rowen to represent the gas turbine dynamics [7]. Since 1993, a working group proposed an extension of this work, including speed, temperature, acceleration and fuel controls [8-9]. However these research efforts deals with heavy-duty combustion turbine used as a conventional central generation system directly connected to the main grid. A nonlinear model of the microturbine is proposed and tested using NETOMAC software [11]. The model was based on the Nern’s non-linear long term model of a gas turbo-generator set [12]. Modeling of microturbine was reported in [13] and [14] where the authors developed a model of the grid connected microturbine converter. In [15], a linear model of the microturbine was adopted and compared to a first order transfer function. The dynamic behavior of the grid connected split shaft microturbine is discussed in [16] where the authors were interested in analyzing thermodynamics and electromechanical stability of microturbines. It can be concluded that an accurate model of the power electronic interfaced microturbine generation system is required to design and test different control strategies adopted for off-grid and grid connected applications, as well as analyzing different dynamic stability aspects. In this paper, a dynamic model of microturbine DG is proposed based on utility experience test data and a simplified mathematical description of heavy duty gas turbine, and scaled down to distribution system applications. A simplified model is proposed for the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) power electronics interface of the DG system. The proposed VSI model is based on energy conversion principle to simplify the test and validation of the proposed computer model. Thereafter, the proposed model is tested for autonomous or stand alone operation with the design of a proper V-f controller. All the proposed modules are built using Matlab- Simulink and SimpowerSystem block set.

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