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Publication Title | FONTANA, CALIFORNIA TST Inc. Direct FuelCell® (DFC®) Cogeneration Installation

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TST Inc.

Direct FuelCell® (DFC®) Cogeneration Installation

500 kilowatts of Ultra-Clean Direct FuelCell® Power

Sustainability Context

Direct FuelCell® (DFC®) power plants are among the cleanest, most reliable sources of ultra-clean base load electric power generation today. They provide continuous, high-quality power 24 hours

a day with reduced emissions and quiet operation; their exhaust heat byproduct can be used for combined heat and power (CHP) applications using hot water, steam or chilled water for a variety of building or process heating and cooling needs. Demand for electricity from the local utility is also reduced, further limiting the greenhouse gas emissions that would be produced by conventional power plants.

Project Goals

TST Inc. in Fontana, California,

produces aluminum ingot, billet and other bulk aluminum forms from recycled aluminum scrap. In an effort to control power costs and improve overall plant energy efficiency, TST contracted with Alliance TST Energy, LLC to install a 500 kilowatt (kW) fuel cell cogeneration system to deliver electricity and thermal energy to the TST facility. In a separate, concurrent project, TST installed four 60-kW Capstone C-60 micro- turbines in a similar cogeneration installation

at the TST site.

DFC Power Plant Results

> Annually generates approximately 4,000,000 kWh of electricity (approximately 60% of base-load power for TST).

> Produces approximately 2,600 mmBtu/year of thermal energy in the form of hot air to offset natural gas usage in TST’s exhaust system duct burner that preheats the exhaust prior

to the emissions control system for the site.

> Overall electrical efficiency of 45% at standard operating conditions (typical efficiency of reciprocating engines is approximately 30%).

> 82% reduction in NOx, 67% reduction in CO2 and 5% reduction in VOC compared to burning natural gas in the facility’s exhaust system duct burner.

> Overall reduction of 47% in NOx, 56% reduction in CO, 12% reduction in VOC, and 15% reduction in CO2 compared to previous operations (i.e., purchasing electricity from the grid and burning natural gas in the facility’s exhaust system duct burner).

> Contract term: 5 years.

The fuel cell cogeneration power plant underscores TST’s commitment to environmental sustainability by applying ultra-clean power generation in an industrial setting. The project provides exceptional overall value to the Fontana area by reducing energy costs while reducing environmental impacts.


Construction initiated April 2006

Startup completed August 2006

Facility dedicated October 2006

Project Components

> Two DFC300A carbonate fuel cells producing 500 kW of base load power in parallel with utility grid.

> The 650-degree Fahrenheit exhaust from the facility is used to offset natural gas combustion in a duct burner used to heat process exhaust

prior to emission control equipment.

Lead Authority

TST Inc.

Environmental Benefits

In addition to saving money, the power plant substantially reduces air pollution emissions through the use of ultra-clean fuel cell technology. The power plant benefits the Fontana area by reducing annual emissions by up to 260 pounds of oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) pollutants and 540 pounds of carbon monoxide annually by using fuel cells instead of purchasing electricity from a local natural gas combustion turbine power plant in the Los Angeles area and burning natural gas in the duct burner.

Image | FONTANA, CALIFORNIA TST Inc. Direct FuelCell® (DFC®) Cogeneration Installation

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