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Publication Title | FUEL PARAMETER AND QUALITY CONSTRAINTS FOR MICROTURBINE DISTRIBUTED GENERATORS

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Proceedings of Power Systems 03: Distributed Generation and Advanced Metering

FUEL PARAMETER AND QUALITY CONSTRAINTS FOR MICROTURBINE DISTRIBUTED GENERATORS

PHANIKRISHNA GOMATOM pxgomatom@wichita.edu

Wichita State University Center for Energy Studies Wichita, Kansas, USA

WARD JEWELL Ward.Jewell@wichita.edu

Inlet Fuel Pressure (psig)

Distribution System Fuel Pressure (psig) Pressure Ratio of the Fuel Compressor Pressure loss in the Fuel Compressor (psig) Volume rate of fuel flow (m3/hr)

Fuel Quality Index

Faraday Constant (Coulombs)

Specific Heat at Constant Pressure (J/kg K) Temperature (K)

Ratio of Specific Heats

Universal Gas constant (J/kg K)

Change in Molar Gibbs free energy (kJ/mole) Molar enthalpy of formation (kJ/mole)

Fuel Utilization Coefficient

Electrical Power rating (VA)

Current (Amperes)

Kilo Revolutions per Minute Pound per square Inch gauge Pound per square Inch absolute Direct /Alternating Current Low Pressure Natural Gas Compressed Natural Gas

Low /High Heating Value Standard Cubic Feet per Minute Standard Temperature Pressure Microturbine Generator

ABSTRACT

Distributed generation (DG) technologies are currently being discussed as the new paradigm for the electricity infrastructure, owing to growth in electric loads, de- regulated markets, and reliability constraints, emission control limitations , and the huge capital investments with minimal rates of return associated with central station generation. Some DG technologies are critically dependent on the fuel quality and supply parameters for optimal power delivery and overall economic operation. Currently, most DG technologies are expensive to install, operate and maintain. One of the factors that could enable feasible and economic viability for installation of microturbines is the supply of fuel with the characteristics appropriate to DG designs [1]. This paper deals with the performance indices of Microturbine DG units and analyzes their dependency on fuel characteristics for economical and optimal performance.

KEYWORDS

Microturbines, microturbine performance, microturbine economics, fuel characteristics.

NOMENCLATURE

IFP

KS

ZFC DP

XV FQI F Cp T

Υ

R ∆gF ∆hF μF Pe

I

Krpm Psig Psia DC/AC LPNG CNG L/HHV SCFM STP MTG

AUL

PONET PT

PC

PFC Pfric PBearing PCon

ηis η tot PExht PF (I) mCP mA mF EHR SFC HRR FFR FHC

Average Useful life (Hours)

Net Power Output (kW)

Turbine Power output (kW)

Power Input to the Compressor (kW) Power Input to the Fuel Compressor (kW) Total System Friction Losses (kW)

Total System Bearing Losses (kW) Electrical Conversion Losses (kW)

Efficiency of Isentropic Compression Total efficiency (LHV)

Exhaust Thermal Power (kW)

Fuel Power Input (Btu/hr or equivalent kW) Mass flow of Combustion Products (kg/sec) Mass flow of Air (kg/sec)

Mass flow of fuel (kg/sec)

Electric Heat Rate (Btu/kWhr)

Specific Fuel Consumption ($/kWhr)

Heat Release Rate (kJ/m3)

Fuel Flow Rate (kJ/hr or Btu/hr)

Fuel Heat content (Btu/ ft3 or MJ/m3)

INTRODUCTION

In a microturbine generator, a rotating electric machine is driven by a small gas turbine, called a microturbine. The turbine operates on the Brayton (constant pressure) cycle. Microturbine generators are high-speed machines, commonly single-shaft in design and typically consisting of a single-stage, radial flow compressor, a combustor, a power turbine (expander) and a recuperator. The turbo- compressor assembly runs at about 100 krpm. Air at atmospheric pressure and temperature is compressed to about 50 to 75 Psig in the compressor. The compressed air at around 350oF is preheated in the recuperator (carrying hot turbine exhaust gas at around 1200oF) and burned with a controlled amount of high-pressure fuel in the combustor. The combustion products at high temperature (about 1700oF) and high pressure are

© 2002 Wichita State University

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