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Publication Title | INSTRUMENTATION ARCHITECTURE AND REAL-TIME CONTROL OF MICROTURBINE

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Proceedings of COBEM 2005 18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering Copyright © 2005 by ABCM November 6-11, 2005, Ouro Preto, MG

INSTRUMENTATION ARCHITECTURE AND REAL-TIME CONTROL OF

MICROTURBINE

Thatiana Virgínia Granja Cruz

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade de Brasília Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, DF, Brasil tvgranja@hotmail.com

Janaína Gomes de Merícia

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade de Brasília Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, DF, Brasil jana.mericia@terra.com.br

Carlos Gurgel Veras

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade de Brasília Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, DF, Brasil gurgel@unb.br

Geovany Araújo Borges

Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade de Brasília Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, DF, Brasil gaborges@ene.unb.br

Abstract. This work presents the architecture for instrumentation and real-time computer control of a microturbine. The microturbine is comprised of a turbocharger, combustion chamber connected to the compressor outlet, a multi- fuel injection system and a lubricating system. The instrumentation apparatus of the microturbine is composed of a rotation sensor, pressure transducer, thermocouples and a fuel electro-injector. The microturbine dynamic model was defined and identified based on experimental data. The design of a PID controller was carried off-line with the identified model. Experimental evaluations demonstrated a satisfactory control design with an improved dynamic performance of the microturbine.

Keywords: microturbine, electronic instrumentation, data acquisition, PID control 1. Introduction

In the current days a great number of technologies are being explored for distributed generation. These include solar cells, fuel cells, wind turbines, and small gas turbines. Gas turbines, or "microturbines", are a relatively new development, which in combination with the outcome of high-speed electric generators can be designed to produce power in the range of 30 to 100 kW. The units are very simple and small, can be quickly installed, and run at relatively low-cost. Maintenance efforts are greatly reduced as there is only one moving part. The level of production of microturbines has, recently, reached a commercial scale, with thousands of units running all over the world in a diversity of applications. In addition, pollution and noise emissions are very low and the system may burn a variety of fuels, or either, any fuel (gas or liquid) that can be injected into the combustion chamber. Microturbines represent a new generation of electricity production technology which will feature the power generation with environmental benefits for the near future.

Recently, some research is being carried on instrumentation and control of such units. In (Ariffin and Munro, 1997), due to approximate dynamic model identification, a robust H∝ control design is proposed for an aircraft gas- turbine. Nonlinear neural network control has been applied in (Cordeiro and Simões, 1999) for pollutant control in the microturbine.

In Brazil, the technologies related to microturbines are under investigation. The Laboratorio de Energia e Ambiente from Universidade de Brasília has been conducting studies in the combustion chamber in (Madela et al., 1999) placed between the compressor and the turbine of an automotive turbocharger. Different combustion chambers have been tested with a broad range of fuels, illustrated in Fig.1 (Santos, 2002). This work presents the components of instrumentation and real-time computer control architecture that might be applied in microturbines.

The manuscript is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the electronic instrumentation modules implanted in the microturbine. System identification and PID control design are described in Sections 3 and 4, respectively. Experimental results are discussed in Section 5, which is followed by the conclusions.

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