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Publication Title | Load-following performance analysis of a microturbine for islanded and grid connected operation

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Electrical Power and Energy Systems 55 (2014) 704–713

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Electrical Power and Energy Systems journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

Load-following performance analysis of a microturbine for islanded and grid connected operation

G. Shankar, V. Mukherjee ⇑

Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

article info

Article history:

Received 19 February 2013

Received in revised form 27 September 2013

Accepted 12 October 2013

Keywords:

Microturbine

Load-following performance Distributed energy resources Synchronous generator

1. Introduction

Distributed generation (DG) system is going to play a key role in bridging the gap between the rate at which electrical energy de- mand is increasing and the generation capacity being added. A re- cent trend of decentralization in electric power utility is creating more opportunities for high penetration of DGs, serving as compli- mentary options to the centralized energy system. DG may be operated in dual mode with grid or without grid. Nevertheless, stand-alone DG systems are preferred more in hilly areas and re- mote villages where accessibility to the main grid is really a big challenge [1–3].

Apart from these, DGs are technically stable, economically fea- sible and environment friendly. These are small and efficient mod- ular generation systems [4–6]. Recently, there is a growing concern among the researchers across the globe in developing microtur- bines (MTs) for DG applications owing to their quick start capabil- ity and easy controllability which may be useful for efficient peak shaving. Also, MTs render reliable and efficient operation along with lower maintenance cost and low greenhouse gas emission [7,8].

Microturbine generation (MTG) is a multi-fuelled generating system, incorporating simple cycle gas turbine technology with power generating capacity ranging between 25 and 500 kW. It suits best to meet peak load requirements of the consumer because

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 0326 2235644; fax: +91 0326 2296563. E-mail addresses: gauri1983@gmail.com (G. Shankar), vivek_agamani@yahoo.

com (V. Mukherjee).

0142-0615/$ - see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2013.10.018

abstract

Modeling, simulation and performance analysis of a microturbine (MT) generator (MTG) system is carried out in this paper. The MTG system is consisting of a MT coupled with a synchronous generator. The pro- posed model incorporates power, speed and voltage controller for maintaining constant speed and volt- age under variable loading condition. Modeling and simulation tasks are performed in MATLAB- SIMULINK platform for different loading conditions under isolated and grid connected modes. Perfor- mance study of the MTG system is carried out with and without both speed and voltage controller. It is observed from the simulation work that the MTG along with speed and voltage controller performs quite well under load disturbances, thereby, renders its suitability as a viable option for playing a key role as distributed generation for both isolated and grid connected mode of operation.

Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

of its quick start capability. Mainly, two types of MT are reported in the literature. One of them is very high speed, single-shaft MTG where generator and turbine are mounted on the same shaft while the other one is the split-shaft MTG system where a generator is connected via a gearbox to a power turbine [9–11]. Addition of DG affects the overall dynamics of the power distribution network, thereby, accurate modeling of MTG and its control have become inevitable to predict its grid and off-grid interaction in advance. Due to these reasons, researchers around the globe have been con- centrating hard to explore accurate dynamic model of the MTG system.

Detailed theory of the gas turbine is well presented by Cohen et al. in [12]. In [9,13,14], modeling of single-shaft heavy duty gas turbine and its performance dynamics with acceleration, tem- perature and speed control are discussed. A review of different gas turbine model, developed till now, is presented and compared in [15,16]. So far as microgas turbine is concerned, its governing prin- ciple resembles heavy duty gas turbine theory. Modeling, simula- tion and control of load-following performance for grid/off-grid operations of MTG are well pursued in [17–21]. These works deal with single-shaft microturbine coupled with high speed perma- nent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). High frequency elec- trical power generated by PMSG, eventually, cannot be used directly by the consumer. As a result, interfacing of power elec- tronic devices between the MTG and the end user is inevitable. The usage of power electronic components results in conversion losses and makes the overall system operation and control more complex. To overcome these complexities while modeling of single-shaft MTG with power electronic components, split-shaft

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