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Chapter 5

Micro Gas Turbine Engine: A Review

Marco Antônio Rosa do Nascimento,

Lucilene de Oliveira Rodrigues,

Eraldo Cruz dos Santos, Eli Eber Batista Gomes, Fagner Luis Goulart Dias,

Elkin Iván Gutiérrez Velásques and

Rubén Alexis Miranda Carrillo

Additional information is available at the end of the chapter http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/54444

1. Introduction

Microturbines are energy generators whose capacity ranges from 15 to 300 kW. Their basic principle comes from open cycle gas turbines, although they present several typi‐ cal features, such as: variable speed, high speed operation, compact size, simple opera‐ bility, easy installation, low maintenance, air bearings, low NOX emissions and usually a recuperator (Hamilton, 2001).

Microturbines came into the automotive market between 1950 and 1970. The first microtur‐ bines were based on gas turbine designed to be used in generators of missile launching sta‐ tions, aircraft and bus engines, among other commercial means of transport. The use of this equipment in the energy market increased between 1980 and 1990, when the demand for distributed generating technologies increased as well (LISS, 1999).

Distributed generation systems may prove more attractive in a competitive market to those seeking to increase reliability and gain independence by self-generating. Manufacturers of gas and liquid-fueled microturbines and advanced turbine systems have bench test results showing that they will either meet or beat current emission goals for nitrogen oxides (NOX) and other pollutants (Hamilton, 2001). Air quality regulation agencies need to account for this technological innovation. Emission control technologies and regulations for distributed generation system are not yet precisely defined. However, control technologies that could

© 2014 do Nascimento et al.; licensee InTech. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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