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Publication Title | Simulation of Microturbine Generation System Performance during Grid Faults under new Grid Code Requirements

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Simulation of Microturbine Generation System Performance during Grid Faults under new Grid Code Requirements

M. Z. C. Wanik, Graduate Student Member, IEEE, and I. Erlich, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract--New grid codes requires distributed energy resources to ride through temporary low voltage event and at the same time injecting reactive current into the grid. In microturbine generation system (MTGS) connected to the grid through power electronic converter, during low voltage ride through, its DC-link voltage increases and MTGS converter is overloaded. The paper discussed and highlights the problems and proposed solutions to mitigate these problems. The effectiveness of the solution is demonstrated using digital simulation. Result shows that MTGS is capable of riding through low voltage events while adhere to new grid code requirements without operating beyond its electrical components permissible limit.

Index Terms--Microturbine generation system, Distributed energy resources, Low voltage ride through, Grid codes.

electronic converter for economic reasons [2].

Among converter based DER technologies, MTGS is

gaining popularity due to proven economic reasons and environmental friendliness. Its overall efficiency could reach up to 85 % when operating this unit as a combine heat and power plant (CHP). In addition it has many advantages compared to other distributed generation technologies because of its low installation cost, low infrastructure requirement and low maintenance cost. This unit could be employed for providing base load power, utility peak shaving and customer peak shaving to name a few [3].

Due to its benefits and advantages, a numbers of MTGS units has been installed and operated throughout the world and the figure is steadily increasing [4]. This DER technology is expected to be seen in a substantial number operating inside low voltage (LV) level of electrical distribution network in the future.

A numbers of MTGS already has been installed in low voltage network for nearly a decade. This unit has been program to operate according to current utility requirements. The questions rise whether these units are able to meet new grid codes requirements and if required what necessary modification need to be made.

In [4], [5], [6] and [7] a single shaft MTGS dynamic model and its performance as a DER was described and presented. All these studies however are concentrating on load following capability. MTGS dynamic model and corresponding PEC controller presented in these studies however is not enough for low voltage ride through (LVRT).

During LVRT, the converter will be under stressed and DC-link voltage will increase. Controlling the unit to enable this fault ride through is more complicated thus requires some modification in the power converter controller. This paper identifies the problems and proposed counter measures to enable MTGS adhere to new grid requirements without damaging its hardware components.

III. GRID CODES AND INTERCONNECTION STANDARD

DER application changes the operational method of distribution system from passive to active. This reason has made many utilities placing stringent requirements for the DER connected to their distribution network. These requirements are different between one utility to another but some effort has been done to introduce a common standard such as IEEE Standard 1547 in the U.S [8]. This standard requires DER to stop energizing the power system when voltage level at PCC goes bellow 88% of nominal value. This

I. NOMENCLATURE

: Complex current and voltage

: Inductance, reactance, resistance

: Complex flux-linkages

: Angular speed

: Torque, time constant

: Time derivative Subscripts

i,u

l, x, r

ψ ω

d,q σ , h

D, f S, R

1

t,T •

: Direct, quadrature axis component : Leakage and mutual

: Damping and field winding : Stator and rotor

II. INTRODUCTION

BENEFITS offered by distribution generation (DG) concept supporting by conducive policies and regulations has increased the proliferation of distributed energy resources (DER) into low voltage (LV) electrical power system [1]. A few DER technologies such as microturbine generation system (MTGS), photovoltaic (PV), and fuel cell (FC) interfaces with the electrical grid through power electronic converters (PEC). There is also a trend now even to decouple internal combustion engine between the electrical grid using power

M. Z. C. Wanik is with Department of Electrical Power System, University of Duisburg Essen, Germany. (email: mohd.zamri@uni- due.de).

I. Erllich is with the Department of Electrical Power System, University of Duisburg Essen, Germany. (email: istvan.erlich@uni- due.de).

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