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Publication Title | Study on the Operation of a Low-Voltage AC Microgrid with Multiple Distributed Generations

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Study on the Operation of a Low-Voltage AC Microgrid with Multiple Distributed Generations


Department of Electrical Engineering Chienkuo Technology University

No. 1, Chieh Shou N. Rd., Changhua City TAIWAN

Abstract: - This paper aims to study the operation of a grid-connected low-voltage AC microgrid with multiple distributed generations (DGs). First of all, a 400 V low-voltage AC microgrid integrated with a 30 kW microturbine generator, a 13 kW photovoltaic generation system, a 10 kW fuel cell generation system, and a 10 kVA wind turbine generator was employed as the sample system. Next, a sequential three-phase power-flow program that developed by the implicit ZBUS Gauss method was derived in this paper. Finally, the daily transformer loadings, voltage profiles, line flow profiles, and system losses of the proposed microgrid were analyzed and discussed by the developed sequential three-phase power-flow program. The outcomes of this paper are helpful for engineers to realize the operation characteristics of AC low-voltage microgrids.

Key-Words: - Microgrids, Distributed Generators, Steady-State Analysis, Three-Phase Power Flow, Distribution Systems.

1 Introduction

The electrical power system is usually divided into three segments which are generation, transmission, and distribution. Under the traditional structure, the large fossil-fuelled steam power stations, together with nuclear power plants and hydro stations, provide the majority of electrical energy. Thus the CO2 emission of the large thermal power plants cause global warming to become increasingly worse. Besides, the efficiency is low due to the transmission losses. Consequently, one of the major tasks of mitigating the global warming phenomenon is reducing the power generation of such thermal units and to simultaneously increase the penetrations of DGs.

Up to now, commercially operating DGs, including solar energy, wind power, hydraulic power, geothermal power, etc., have the advantages of low environmental effect and high efficiency. DGs have smaller capacity compared with larger thermal power plants. These kinds of units are suitable for connected into medium-voltage or low- voltage distribution systems, and they can supply power near the load centre to meet the customer’s demands. Distribution networks integrated with multiple DGs and loads are called microgrids, as shown in Fig. 1. Microgrids are able to operate

under autonomous and grid-connected modes. This predominance can also compensate for the disadvantages of traditional centralized power systems with high emission and low efficiency. Furthermore, microgrids can also enhance power system reliability and power quality under optimal control and operation conditions. Since microgrids will play the vital important role in power systems in the future, it is necessary to realize the operation and nature of microgrids. Therefore, recent studies was focus on the related issues, such as optimal reactive power planning of doubly fed induction generators[1], integrated renewable sources for supplying remote power systems[2], power flow control strategy of dispersed generation[3], PV distributed generation penetration limits in LV distribution networks[4], effects of renewable distributed generation on distribution systems[5], power flow simulation of autonomous microgrids[6], etc. In which Power-flow analysis is the most fundamental of all system steady-state analyses in the system planning and operation stages. Additionally, low-voltage microgrids are inherently imbalanced; therefore, a rigid three-phase power- flow analysis is essential in order to reflect the physical phenomenon of real system. The major point of this paper is to analyze steady-state nature

ISSN: 1109-2734

725 Issue 12, Volume 9, December 2010

Image | Study on the Operation of a Low-Voltage AC Microgrid with Multiple Distributed Generations

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